China's space cause is based on the development of missile technology. In the 1950s, New China, which was just founded , decided to keep pace with the jet technology times, begin developing missile and rocket science and technology, and to establish China's new space scientific and technological industry.
On November 5, 1960, the first China-made short-range surface to surface missile made its successful flight test. At the very beginning, China's missile development encountered serious difficulties in the development of China's national economy. But the country still attached great importance to the development of the missiles, supported the continuous development of the most advanced technology of national defense. The country gave priority to construction of the No. 5 Research Academy of the Ministry of National Defense, concentrated talents, equipment and installations, and materials. The engineers and technicians worked with a will to make the country strong and tried to make a good showing, transferred the focal point of their work to their own design, and accelerated the independent development of missile technology.
On March 21, 1962, the first intermediate-range missile designed and developed by China itself made its maiden flight test, but it was unsuccessful. The engineers summed up lessons, analyzed the failure cause in the light of engineering technology, scientific management and guidelines, reviewed and revised the system technology design, made full ground tests, took good charge of links in the development and overcame many key technological difficulties. Two years later, on June 29, 1964, the intermediate-range missile test achieved success, which marked that China had already obtained the independent capability to develop missiles. At that time, the development of missiles in China had initially formed industrial scale. China made the first step in developing missile industry through self-reliance.
In 1965, the Party Central Committee and the State Council decided to establish the Seventh Ministry of Machine Building to unify the leadership of the missile industry, concentrate forces and to speed up the development of missiles. From this time on, China's missile weapons entered into total development stage. Its missile development and production force obtained greater advances. Then the development of various versions of missiles began and made a great advances. Especially the successful development of the ballistic surface to surface missile laid a foundation for the development of space launch vehicles. Therefore, in the late 1950s, China began considering the plan for the launch of artificial satellites. By 1972, China had made many successful flight tests of strategic intermediate- range and intermediate- and long-range missiles and achieved multi-stage vehicle technology, which laid a good foundation for the launch of artificial earth satellites.
In 1957 when the world's first artificial earth satellite was launched , China's many famous scientists, including Dr. Qian Xuesen, advocated beginning the development of space technology. The Chinese Academy of Sciences and former Seventh Ministry of Machine Building began developing space technology respectively. The Chinese Academy of Space Technology was set up in 1968. The Academy had been responsible for the leadership and management of satellite development.
At the beginning of 1970, the LM-1 launch vehicle was developed successfully based on many flight tests of long- range surface to surface missiles. At the same time, the development of the DFH- 1 satellite was completed in time.
*+TPE,+105mm170mm,YX,DY#*+ [TS(][WT5HZ][JZ]Flying towards the Pacific Ocean[TS)]
On April 24, 1970, China's first indigenous satellite was launched from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, which was broadcasting the melody, Dong Fang Hong (the East is Red) to the whole world. The satellite is 173kg, heavier than the total weight of the first satellites of the United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom and France, which indicates that the development of China's space technology has a high-level starting point although it started late. This historic launch opened up a new chapter of China's space history. On March 3, 1971, a LM-1 vehicle was also used to launch China's first "Shijian-1" scientific experiment satellite, which was operating in space for 8 years and obtained scientific experiment data in space. Thereafter, China successfully developed the LM-2 with greater thrust and the recoverable satellite which was launched successfully for the first time on November 26, 1975 . The satellite was working normally, and safely impact down the recovering area after 3 days' operation in space. China became the third country in the world to achieve the satellite recovery technology after the United States and the Soviet Union.
After the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, China entered a new historic period, which created a good environment and very favorable conditions for the development of China's space cause. In September, 1977 the State worked out a plan for the development of the launch vehicle and space technology, which determined to make the full rang flight test of the intercontinental launch vehicle towards a sea area in the Pacific Ocean, to make the flight test of the solid launch vehicle from the submarine under water and to launch the geostationary orbit experimental communications satellite. Those important projects were major strategic goals ( called Three seizures). Under the correct leadership of the Central Committee of the Party, with the coordination and support of the related department and areas, and through the great efforts of technicians and workers, all the three important missions were completed respectively.
On May 18, 1980, China launched a long-range rocket to the South Pacific Ocean from its mainland. After more than 9000km flying, the recovery capsule precisely splashed down on the predetermined sea area. The test flight was successful. The success of the full range launch test of a long-range rocket marked that the Chinese people made the important step in the development of the modern science and technology and that China's defence capability was newly improved and enhanced.
From 1977 to 1982, after the success of several land launch tests , the test of the submarine underwater launched solid rocket which was launched from the submarine underwater in October, 1982 achieved success. It marked that China's launch vehicle technology made a new progress.
At the same time China also accelerated the work on the experimental geostationary communications satellite. This development program covered a new powerful LM-3 launch vehicle, DFH-2 communications satellite and test, measurement, control and launch systems. Especially the LN/LO engine of the third stage was the key project. Its successful development was a breakthrough in the powerful launch vehicle technology, which laid a solid foundation for the successful development of the LM-3 launch vehicle. In April 8, 1984, the DFH- 2 experimental communications satellite was sent into the predetermined orbit by a LM-3 launch vehicle from the newly built Xichang Satellite Launch Center.After 8 days, the satellite was positioned at 125E over the equator. The test results of communications, broadcast and TV transmission between ground stations and the satellite were very good, which indicated that China's space technology made a new progress and that China's launch vehicle technology and satellite technology stepped into the world's advanced ranks.
The reform and opening policy created a new opportunity and brought about a new vigore for the development of China's space technology and also opened up the broader way to a bright future for the application of China's space technology. In October, 1985, the Chinese Government announced that the long march vehicle family would be offered commercially to customers throughout the world. The various media publicly reported commercial launch services for foreign customers provided by the long march vehicle family. The Long March launch vehicle members which are commercially offered to foreign customers are the LM-2C, the LM-3, the LM-2E and the LM-3A. China will have new Long March vehicles to provide international commercial launch services.
Generally speaking, China's space industry has obtained good achievements. We have put into use 9 kinds of Long March series launch vehicles which can launch various satellites into low orbit, middle and high orbits, sun-synchronous orbit and geostationary orbit. China has launched 44 various indigenous and foreign satellites and signed several international commercial launch service contracts to launch more that 30 satellites. We have communications satellites, scientific experiment satellites and earth observation satellites, etc. . Some technologies such as satellite recovery, cryogenic propellant rocket, geostationary satellite launch, measurement and control, multi-satellite on one rocket launch, strap-on booster and other technologies have approached and reached the advanced world level in some important areas of space technology.
China's space industry has built a space contingent with high- technical competence, who is able to be engaged in the research, design, development, production and test work. Among them middle-aged and young successors account for more than 50%. It has built bases and facilities for the research, design, development, test and production of satellites , launch vehicles, launch equipment, measurement system and control system, constructed launch centers which can launch low orbit and geostationary orbit satellites, and set up TT&C network, which is composed of the control center, ground observation stations and instrumentation ships. Therefore, China has bases, capabilities to continuously open up the new areas of space technological activities.
From the development of the launch vehicle and space technology, we can know the developmental course and achievements of China's space industry. However, that is only one representative aspect. Other aspects of the development of China's space cause also have obtained good achievements which also reached the world level in many areas.
We improve the existing vehicles, the LM-1. LM-2, LM-3 and LM-4 4 series. The development of launch vehicles should meet the domestic demands while aiming at international launch service market.
The LM launch vehicle family should first meet the domestic launch needs and then consider international commercial launch service. So it should have a competitive ability in the international market. In the present international launch service market, European Ariane vehicle occupies 50-60%(except for launch vehicle's performance, good launch site, good life service conditions also play an important role) , American vehicles share about 30% and the rest 10% are competed by China's LM, Russian Proton and Japanese H2 and India also plans to take part in the competition with its rockets. China maybe at the risk of being squeezed out of the international launch market.
At the beginning of the next century, China will have its own directive broadcasting satellite, sending broadcasting and TV programs directly into families, without the relay and rebroadcast by ground stations. China will also develop and establish "information highway" in the future with which we can make convenient information exchanges anywhere and anytime to obtain and use information. Only satellite communications can fulfill the task. So the development of communications satellite has a bright future.
China has launched its FY-1 meterological satellites and will complete the development of the FY-2, FY-3 meterological satellites and launch them next two years or in the near future.
The Long March launch vehicle family has entered the world market and China's satellites should also have the technological level and capacity to enter world satellite market.
For the middle and high orbit communications satellites, we should develop large-capacity, long-life, high reliability, multi- frequency and multi-beam and other technologies. The satellite platform technology should develop towards modularization, integration and seriation in order to facilitate the design and production of satellite platform and reduce its cost. For example, after satellite components are integrated, the number of components can be reduced by 20% and its weight can be lightened by more than 30%. The distribution of the typical satellite's weight is: the power supply is the heavest part accounting for 3240% of the total weight of the satellite, the satellite structure accounting for 2230% and satellite attitude control propulsion system accounting for 2022%. To improve the satellite technology, we must concentrate our efforts on technologies to lighten the weight of the satellite platform and thus to enable the satellite payload to have more functions, higher capacity and more reliable performance. To meet the needs of the development of the future information highway, it is necessary to develop new satellite technologies such as large antenna, multi-beam, on- board processing, power distribution according to needs and high-energy batteries, high -power satellite platform, etc.
China obtained great achievements in the development of space technology completely through self-reliance in the past closed door case. Now China is carrying out the reform and opening to the outside world policy, which created the favourable conditions for making international cooperations and exchanges in space technology. Mr. Liu Jiyuan, Administrator of China's National Space Administration, on behalf of the Chinese government announced 4 principles to be followed by China in making international space technology cooperation at the 45th IAF Conference. The Chinese Government signed cooperative Agreements in space technology with Brazil, Russia etc., participated in the International Astronautical Federation, United Nations Committee on Peaceful Use of Outer Space and other international organizations, made cooperation and exchanges in space technology with many countries and regions, and developed technological cooperation or established joint-ventures with some world -famous space companies. I believe that China's space industry will surely develop rapidly and better and can create even more brilliant attainments than ever before.